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Great Line-up of Plenary Conference Speakers and President’s Desk Updates

May 14th, 2015 by avatar

lamaze icea conf 2015Today on Science & Sensibility – news you can use!  Plenary speakers have been announced for the upcoming conference and Robin Elise Weiss, Lamaze International’s Board President has a new series of informative videos called “From the President’s Desk” that you will want to check out.  Read on for information on both of these topics.

Lamaze/ICEA Joint Conference News

Lamaze International and the International Childbirth Education Association (ICEA) just announced their plenary (general session) speaker line up for the joint Lamaze/ICEA 2015 conference at Planet Hollywood, Las Vegas on September 17-20.  Four speakers will address the entire conference in general sessions and I am very much looking forward to listening to their presentations along with the many concurrent sessions that will be offered over the four days of the conference.

ICEA and Lamaze celebrated their 50th anniversaries together in 2010 in Milwaukee, WI with a well attended “mega-conference” that had great energy and educational offerings and I expect that this conference will be just as big and wonderful.  Bringing together two leaders in childbirth education to hold a joint conference means that all attendees will benefit in numerous ways.

The theme of the Las Vegas conference is “Raising the Stakes for Evidence Based Practices & Education in Childbirth” and I know that educators, doctors, midwives, doulas, L&D nurses, IBCLCs and others will come together and take advantage of this joint conference to network, learn, receive contact hours, and socialize with other professionals.  Maybe, even win a little at the blackjack tables or take in a great show.  Las Vegas is a great venue for this conference, offering a wide variety of locales, activities and nightlife to enjoy outside of conference  hours.

This year’s plenary speakers

camman head shot 2015William Camann, MD
Director of Obstetric Anesthesia, Brigham and Women’s Hospital,  Associate Professor of Anesthesia, Harvard Medical School

Presentation: What does the informed childbirth educator need to know about labor pain relief in 2015?

 

 

combellick head shot 2015Joan Combellick, MSN, MPH,CM
PhD Student, NYU College of Nursing
Midwife, Hudson River Healthcare

Presentation: Watchful Waiting Revisited: Birth Experience and the Neonatal Microbiome

 

 

Joseph head shot 2015Jennie Joseph, LM, CPM
Co-Founder and Executive Director
Commonsense Childbirth School of Midwifery

Presentation:The Perinatal Revolution: Reducing Disparities and Saving Lives through Perinatal Education and Support

 

 

mcallister head shot 2015Elan McAllister
Founder, Choices in Childbirth

Presentation: No Day But Today

 

 

 

 

Concurrent sessions

Watch the website for soon to be released information on concurrent speakers and their topics.  Concurrent sessions will fall into one of four categories:

  • Evidence-Based Teaching and Practice
  • Using Technology and Innovation to Reach Childbearing and Breastfeeding Women
  • New and Emerging Research in the Field of Childbearing and Breastfeeding
  • Challenges of the Maternal Child Professional

Preconference workshops

Additionally, there will be two preconference workshops available for a small additional fee.  These 4 hour workshops allow you to really immerse yourself in the topic and leave with concrete skills applicable to your work with childbearing families.

  • Movement in Birth (AM)
  • Social Media Smarts: Strategic Online Marketing for the Busy Childbirth Professional (PM)

Early bird registration is open until August 1, 2015, so registering now allows you to save money on the conference fees and make your travel and hotel plans now.  Look for interviews with the plenary speakers over the next few months on Science & Sensibility.

 From the President’s Desk

Board President Robin Elise Weiss, Ph.D, has recently made a series of short and useful videos for Lamaze International on several topics.  The video series is called “From the President’s Desk”. Released to date are several on cesareans;

Robin’s newest video discusses the recently released ACOG committee opinion “Clinical Guidelines and Standardization of Practice to Improve Outcomes“. This video helps both birth professionals and consumers to understand how pushing for the best evidence based care can result in both pregnant people and their babies having improved outcomes.  ACOG wants to be able to offer best practice to those receiving care from its members, and consumers can help by sharing their desire to receive care in line with recommended guidelines.

Head over to Lamaze International’s YouTube Channel to see all the offerings, share the relevant videos with your students and clients and subscribe to the channel so that you don’t miss any of the releases.

2015 Lamaze & ICEA Joint Conference, ACOG, Cesarean Birth, Childbirth Education, Conference Calendar, Conference Schedule, Continuing Education, Lamaze International, Lamaze News , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Celebrate International Day of the Midwife! ACOG Calls for Universal ICM Standards

May 5th, 2015 by avatar

Lamaze and Midwives IDM 2015Lamaze International and Science & Sensibility join with other partners around the world to celebrate International Day of the Midwife.  This global celebration is observed every year on May 5th and was officially recognized by the International Confederation of Midwives in 1992. (Read Judith Lothian’s report from the 2014 ICM Congress here.) This year’s theme is “The World Needs Midwives Today More Than Ever.”

Key midwifery concepts and model of care

Key midwifery concepts as defined by the International Confederation of Midwives describe the unique role that midwives have in providing care to women and families:

  • partnership with women to promote self-care and the health of mothers, infants, and families;
  • respect for human dignity and for women as persons with full human rights;
  • advocacy for women so that their voices are heard and their health care choices are respected;
  • cultural sensitivity, including working with women and health care providers to overcome those cultural practices that harm women and babies;
  • a focus on health promotion and disease prevention that views pregnancy as a normal life event;
  • advocacy for normal physiologic labour and birth to enhance best outcomes for mothers and infants.  (Fullerton, Thompson & Severino, 2011).

ACOG advocates universal standards

http://www.flickr.com/photos/eyeliam/

http://www.flickr.com/photos/eyeliam/

On April 20, 2015, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) endorsed the International Confederation of Midwives education and training standards and suggested that this criteria be adopted as the minimum requirements for midwifery licensure in the United States.  ACOG “advocates for implementation of the ICM standards in every state to assure all women access to safe, qualified, highly skilled providers.” In the same document, ACOG calls for a single midwife credential.  Currently, in the USA there are certified nurse midwives (CNM), Certified Midwives (CM) and Certified Professional Midwives (CPM) and they all have different core competencies and educational requirements.  You can read the entire ACOG statement here.  This document is meant to accompany their Levels of Maternal Care statement that I wrote about in a previous blog post.  Both of these recent statements signify a recognition that families have choices about the type of health care provider they receive their maternity care from and that more and more families every year are choosing midwifery.

Five interesting facts about midwifery

  1. There are approximately 26,000 midwives in the USA.  This number includes Certified Nurse Midwives, Certified Midwives and Certified Professional Midwives.
  2. Midwives practice and catch babies in hospitals, birth centers and in families’ homes.
  3. Midwives who are educated and regulated to international standards can provide 87% of the essential care needed for women and newborns. (UNFPA, 2014)
  4. 11.3% of all babies born in the USA in 2013 were caught by midwives (Martin, Hamilton, Osterman, et al. 2015)
  5. Approximately 0.6% of all midwives in the USA are male. (Pinkerton, Schorn, 2008)

Summary

How are you celebrating International Day of the Midwife in your community and in your classes?  Have you reached out to the midwives in your community and let them know that they are appreciated?  Take a moment to do so and join Lamaze International in thanking midwives for helping families have safe and healthy  births.

References

Fullerton, J. T., Thompson, J. B., & Severino, R. (2011). The International Confederation of Midwives essential competencies for basic midwifery practice. An update study: 2009–2010. Midwifery, 27(4), 399-408.

Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Osterman MJK, et al. Births: Final data for 2013. National vital statistics reports; vol 64 no 1. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2015.

Pilkenton, D., & Schorn, M. N. (2008). Midwifery: a career for men in nursing.Men in Nursing Journal, 3(1), 32.

UNFPA. The State of the World’s Midwifery 2014. A Universal Pathway. A Woman’s Right to Health. United Nations Population Fund, New York; 2014

Breastfeeding, Home Birth, Midwifery, Uncategorized , , , , , , , , ,

BABE Series: Cesarean Section Role Play Helps Prepare Families

April 30th, 2015 by avatar

apron and babyToday, in our monthly series “Brilliant Activities for Birth Educators” (BABE), I would like to share one of the activities that I do in my Lamaze class to help families feel prepared for a cesarean section. Most families in my classes are planning a vaginal birth, but it never hurts to be prepared should plans change.  One in three pregnant people will birth by cesarean in the USA.  April is Cesarean Awareness Month and that is why I am sharing this activity at this time.

Objectives

My objectives for this specific activity are threefold – 1) to share how the procedure is done 2) to offer different options that might be available for the family to request (skin to skin in the OR, delayed newborn procedures, etc., and 3) brainstorm the role of the support person during a cesarean and what kind of support the pregnant person will find comforting and helpful.

This role play is done in the fifth week of a seven week series. We have just covered variations in labor (induction, augmentation, EFM, AROM, pain medications, assisted second stage and more). They have heard about the hard and soft reasons for a cesarean and now I hope that they will understand the procedure and the choices and options they might have at the time.

Supplies for the activity and the setup

  • Cesarean apron
  • surgical masks
  • drape
  • soft baby
  • hair nets
  • scrubs
  • surgical clothing
  • laminated labels for each role
  • optional – IV bag, BP cuff, EKG leads, etc
up close cesarean apron

Up close of four zippers on cesarean apron

My main prop in this activity is a “cesarean apron” handmade by Kris Avery, a fellow LCCE here in Washington State. The apron has breasts, a belly button and some pubic hair painted on it, but what makes it special is a series of zippers that correspond to the different layers of a person’s body that will be cut during the cesarean procedure. Each zipper is sewn into a different layer and opens to reveal the layer underneath. The skin is represented by the apron, and then there is a layer of fat (yellow felt) that zips open, revealing the uterus (red felt). There are no muscles to “open” because as we know, the abdominal muscles are retracted and not cut. Finally, underneath the uterus, is the amniotic sac, represented by a thin white nylon material.

I ask a partner to come with me out of sight of the class and place the cesarean apron on them. All the zippers are closed. I place a soft baby doll (I use the baby from IKEA) underneath the apron with the head positioned right near the inner zipper.  Sometimes I place the baby in the breech position and plan on having the bum be removed first. When the partner is ready, we walk together back into the classroom and I ask them to lay on a table, where I have placed a pillow.

How I conduct the role play

I invite two class members to come up and hold a drape at chest level, just like it might be positioned in the OR.  I hand out laminated cards to all the other class members. Each card has the role of someone who might be in the OR during a cesarean section – surgeon, baby nurse, anesthesiologist, surgical tech, respiratory therapist, and so on.   I ask the pregnant person who is partnered with my “cesarean person” to play the role of “partner.”  I invite the partner to get into the white “moon suit” that is normally provided to family members during a cesarean.  I hand out hair nets, scrubs, face masks, surgical gowns, to all those who will be in the OR and everyone suits up.  I position all the “actors” in the appropriate spot.  Some go by a pretend “baby warmer” and others stand around the birthing person while others go where they might be in the real operating room. I talk about how hard it is to tell who is in the room and what their role is, when everyone is wearing scrubs/gowns/hats/masks and suggest that they ask people to introduce themselves.  I discuss strategies that the birthing person can use if they are temporarily separated from their support person.  I bring the support person over and seat them at the head of the OR table near the “anesthesiologist” and discuss how they cannot see over the drape for both the patient and the partner. The partner can stand up at the time of birth if they wish, or together they could ask for the drape to be dropped at that moment.  I ask the pregnant person how they are feeling as the surgery is about to begin.FullSizeRender

I walk everyone through the procedure step by step and describe what is happening.  I share what noises they might hear, and what sensations the pregnant person might “feel.”  (Tugging, pressure, pulling, but no pain.)  I try and give a sense of how long it takes for each part of the operation, (prep, incision to baby, closure)  I ask the surgeons to begin to open the zippers, and talk about each layer that they come to.  Finally the surgeons are through the amniotic sac and they reach in and remove the baby’s head through the opening. It is a somewhat tight fit and we discuss how that might benefit the baby.

The baby is delivered, shown to the parents and taken over to the “warmer” where the baby team is waiting.  I encourage partner to go over and see the baby, initiate talking to the baby and start sharing information with the birthing person – what the baby looks like, how s/he is doing, and so on.

cesarean apronWe go on to discuss how the partner can facilitate having the baby brought over to the birthing person ASAP, skin-to-skin, what might need to happen if baby is moved to the special care nursery, and more.  Throughout all of this, the class participants are role-playing through all of the likely activities and people are stepping up to help the family to have a positive experience, within the scope of their assigned role.  The surgeons close (zip up) the different layers and close the outer zipper on the skin.

I am leaving out much of the detail, as I am confident that you can fill in the activities that happen when a person is prepped, taken to the OR, has the cesarean surgery and is then taken to recover.  My hope is to have parents aware of some of the major points of the overall procedure.

Processing the activity

The class members take off the “costumes” and return to their seats.  I feel it is very important to debrief this activity.  It can be overwhelming to some. We debrief further, discussing any observations they had, how they felt as our role play was happening. I ask what are the values that are important to them and their family, if a cesarean should be needed.  A discussion also takes place about what a cesarean recovery plan might look like and how the family’s needs might change if they do not have a vaginal birth.

How is this activity received?

IMG_0116During the activity, class members are usually very engaged and creative in answering questions, acting out their “roles” and brainstorming solutions to the situations I present.  The real magic happens when we debrief.  I can see the wheels turning as families articulate what they will want and need should they have a cesarean birth.  They learn that they have a voice and can share what is important with their medical team.

Time and time again, I receive emails and and notes from class members who ended up having a cesarean. They share how “accurate” our role play was and how it helped them to understand the steps involved with their cesarean.  They were able to speak up in regards to their preferences and felt like their class preparation helped to reduce their stress and anxiety.

Summary

This activity takes time and I often wonder if I should replace it with something much shorter that covers the same topic.  But, I continue to do this role play activity because I see how it really helps families to understand how to play an active role in the birth of their baby, even if it is by cesarean section.

Other resources that I share with the class are the following links:

How might you make a “cesarean apron” that you could use for this activity?  Do you have ideas on how you could modify this activity for your classes?  What other things do you do to help your families to be prepared for a cesarean birth?  I would love to learn how you cover this important topic.  Please share your ideas in the comments section below.

 

Babies, Cesarean Birth, Childbirth Education, Medical Interventions, Newborns, Push for Your Baby, Series: BABE - Brilliant Activities for Birth Educators , , , ,

Series: Building Your Birth Business and Google’s Mobilegeddon: What Every Birth Professional Needs to Know

April 23rd, 2015 by avatar

Building Your Birth BusinessGoogle announced in February of this year that they would penalize websites that are not “mobile friendly” and push those sites further down in the rankings in their search engines on mobile devices. They stated that the big switch would happen on April 21, 2015 and have “a significant impact on our search results.” As a birth professional, you probably have your own website. You may even maintain the website(s) yourself. You, no doubt, have worked long and hard on Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and have appreciated the payoff – a great ranking when customers are looking for classes and other birth services. Could this Google change in ranking transfer over to less website visibility and have an impact on your business? Will this translate into fewer class registrations, a reduction in blog readers, or a scarcity of clients? Don’t panic, here is some information that will help you figure out what you need to know and next steps to take so that you can continue to do what you do best – supporting families during the childbearing year.

What does “mobile-friendly” mean?

Google has defined mobile friendly to mean the following:

  • The site does not contain software that is not readily available on a variety of mobile devices (Flash is an example of such software)
  • The site is readable without having to change the text size.
  • The website is visible completely on the mobile device screen without having to use a horizontal scroll bar or the zoom feature.
  • Links are spaced appropriately so that they can be appropriately accessed and tapped.

There are six classifications of “mobile-friendly” sites, and a complete description of the six categories can be found here.

Why should you care if your site is mobile-friendly?

The millennial generation, the ones having babies now, is a bigger generation than the Baby Boomer generation. Failing to understand them, and market to them in *their* “language” (i.e.: on mobile devices) is a failure to gain their business. Marketing to millennials means learning how they conduct business; *not* waiting for, or expecting them to follow the status quo.

Did you know that  85% of Americans ages 18-29 are smartphone owners, as are 78% of college graduates and 84% of those living in households with an annual income of $75,000 or more per year.

Even more important, younger adults, minorities and lower-income Americans are the most dependent on their smartphone for internet access. Overall, among U.S. adults who own a smartphone, it is estimated that 7% are “smartphone-dependent” which means that at home, they either have limited options to go online or do not have a home based internet service to use, other than through their smartphone or tablet.

If your website does not automatically reformat for a mobile device, users (read: potential customers) may choose to leave immediately or not spend as much time on your website. This could increase your “bounce rate” and lower your “dwell time”… two Google ranking factors.

Nearly 20% of millennials are mobile-only users, meaning they don’t use desktops at all. If a pregnant person can’t sign up for your classes or access your other services from their mobile device, they will find another place to get their childbirth education and other services met.

Why Responsive Design is Important: 10 Key Statistics

 How to Tell if Your Website is Mobile Friendly
  • Use Google’s mobile-friendly test page: https://www.google.com/webmasters/tools/mobile-friendly/ When you check the pages in your site it will give you a pass/fail grade and will also provide links to describe what can be done to fix any issues that are found. This is an important step because it helps you understand how Google views your site and it’s potential impact on your ranking.
  • Visit your website on several mobile devices.
    Make sure you click through every page so that you get the feel for what it is like for a potential client. Check your links, your menus, your inquiry forms and any other clickable objects to be sure they work as expected. Check how the elements on the pages are displayed to see if anything feels clunky or looks unattractive.

Mobile Version vs Mobile Responsive

Some website builders provide a mobile version of your website. This means the content is duplicated into a separate version that renders only in a mobile device. Other website builders or templates are mobile responsive which means that the website automatically responds to the display width of the device without rendering a new version. Ideally, you should have a mobile responsive website.

  • Wix is not mobile responsive; you have to manually set your mobile version using their Mobile Editor
  • Weebly offers some mobile responsive themes. If your theme isn’t mobile responsive Weebly creates a mobile version of your site automatically.
  • Squarespace claims that all of its themes are mobile responsive.
  • GoDaddy Website Builder v7 is not mobile responsive but provides a mobile version of your website for their Business & Business Plus plans. You must turn on this feature.
  • WordPress.com mobile responsiveness will depend on the theme that is used. Some themes are mobile responsive. If yours is not, WordPress.com will automatically serve the user a mobile version of your website.
  • Self Hosted WordPress mobile responsiveness will depend on the theme that is used. Many modern WordPress themes are mobile responsive. You can also add a mobile version using the WP Touch Mobile Plugin which works with any theme.
  • Using another website provider? Try contacting their customer service to see what they have available to help you make your site mobile responsive.

Help! My Site’s Not Mobile Responsive

Remember that Google’s algorithm update only affects mobile search results. So if your site isn’t mobile responsive, it may not show up as high when someone is searching on a mobile device. Your ranking for people searching on desktops/laptops won’t be affected.

Take incremental steps to make your site mobile responsive and your rankings will improve on mobile devices.

Mobile-friendly is only one of hundreds of Google ranking signals. If you provide quality content and a well coded website, Google will continue to rank your website well.

Resources

http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/04/01/chapter-one-a-portrait-of-smartphone-ownership/

http://www.comscore.com/Insights/Blog/Why-Are-Millennials-So-Mobile

Thanks to Emily Fontes and Katie Rohs for technical support on this post.

Childbirth Education, Science & Sensibility, Series: Building Your Birth Business , , , , , , , , , ,

World Health Organization: Provide Cesareans for Women in Need, Don’t Focus on Specific Rate

April 21st, 2015 by avatar
© Patti Ramos Photography

© Patti Ramos Photography

As we have mentioned earlier this month, when Jen Kamel discussed placenta accreta as a downstream risk factor of the increasing cesarean rate, April is Cesarean Awareness Month and the World Health Organization (WHO) has come out with a new statement (WHO Statement on Caesarean Section Rates) that discourages identifying a “cesarean target rate” but rather encourages the use of cesarean surgery worldwide only when appropriate to protect the health of mother and baby. The goal should be that every cesarean performed is done out of true medical necessity and the decision to do so should be based on individual circumstances evaluated at the time for each mother/baby dyad.

Since 1985,  it has been stated that a safe and appropriate cesarean target rate was between 10-15%.  It was believed that if the cesarean rate exceeded that target rate, the mortality and morbidity for both mothers and babies would rise as a result of potentially unnecessary surgeries being performed.  Everyone recognizes that a cesarean birth can save the life of a mother and/or a baby.  But it needs to be acknowledged that there are no benefits to mothers and babies when a cesarean is done when it is not required.  WHO has decided to revisit the decades old suggested target rate as the number of cesarean surgeries being performed are increasing all around the world.  In the USA, in 2013, 1,284,339 cesarean surgeries were performed.  32.7% of all babies born in the USA that year were delivered by surgery.

There are both short term and long term risks to mothers, babies and future pregnancies every time a cesarean is performed.  These risks are even more elevated in areas where women have limited access to appropriate obstetrical care.

The WHO strived to identify an ideal cesarean rate for each country or population as well as a worldwide country level analysis.  The cesarean rate at the population level is determined by two items – 1) the level of access to cesareans and 2) the use of the intervention, both appropriate and inappropriately. Governments and agencies can use this information to allocate funding and resources.  Cesareans are costly to perform and doing more than necessary puts undue financial hardship on resources that may already be stretched too thin in many places around the world.

After conducting a systematic review – the team tasked with determining the population based cesarean rate determined that indeed, when cesareans are performed up to a rate of approximately 10-15%, maternal, neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity is reduced.  When the cesarean rate starts to increase above this level, mortality rates are not improved. When socioeconomic factors were included in the analysis, the relationship between lower mortality rates and an increasing cesarean rate disappeared.  In locations where cesarean rates were below 10%, as the rate increased, there was a decrease in mortality in both mothers and babies.  When the rate was between 10-30%, they did not see a continued decrease in mother or newborn mortality rates. The team also acknowledged that once the cesarean rate increased to 30% or above, the link between newborn and maternal mortality becomes difficult to assess.

In countries that struggle with resources, staffing and access to care, the common complications of surgery, such as infection, make cesarean surgery even more complicated and even dangerous for those women who give birth this way.

The team also struggled with analyzing the morbidity rate due to the lack of available data.  They did acknowledge that while the social and psychological impact of cesarean sections were not analyzed, potential impacts could be found in the maternal–infant relationship, women’s psychological health, women’s ability to successfully initiate breastfeeding and pediatric outcomes.  More research is needed.

WHO Cesarean Rate Conclusions

© WHO

 

The WHO team also felt it is important to establish, recognize and apply a universal classification system for cesareans that can be applied at the hospital level and allow comparisons to take place between different facilities and the unique populations that they serve. Once established, rates and systems could be compared between geographic regions, countries, different facilities and on a global level and the data analyzed effectively to help identify where change can be effective at reducing poor outcomes.

robson high res 2

© WHO – click image for full size version

After reviewing the different classification systems currently available, they determined that universal use of the Robson classification would best meet the needs of both international and local analysis.  The Robson classification system is named after Dr. Michael Robson, who in 2001 developed this system to classify women based on their obstetric characteristics for the purpose of research analysis.  This allows for comparisons to be made regarding cesarean section rates with few confounding factors.  Every woman will be clearly classified into one of the ten known groups when admitted for delivery. The WHO team states that the Robson classification system “is simple, robust, reproducible, clinically relevant, and prospective.”

The WHO team believes that using the Robson classification will aid in data analysis on many levels and the information obtained from these analyses be public information.  This information can be used to help facilities to optimize the use of cesarean section in the specific groups that will benefit from intervention.  It will also help determine the effectiveness of different strategies that are currently being used to reduce this intervention when not necessary.

Cesarean sections can be a life-saving tool under certain circumstances.  When cesareans are performed when not medically necessary, there are both long term and short term risks to both mothers and babies, including increased mortality and morbidity and risks to future pregnancies.  This becomes especially significant in areas of low resources and scare obstetric care.  Better data is needed to help reduce the cesarean rate in locations where it is unnecessarily high and to be able to direct resources where they are needed and can improve outcomes.  The World Health Organization hopes that this data becomes available so that more accurate research can be conducted and the reduction in mortality and morbidity for mothers and babies can be reduced.

Are you sharing with your classes, clients and families the importance of having a cesarean only when medically necessary?  While April may be Cesarean Awareness Month, we need to be diligent all year long to prevent cesareans that are not needed.

Lamaze International has created and made available three infographics that can help families learn more about cesareans and VBACs.

Screenshot 2015-04-20 19.52.53

What’s the Deal with Cesareans?

Avoiding the First Cesarean

VBAC, Yes, It’s an Option! (NEW!)

You can download and print these and other Lamaze International infographics from this page here.

Share what you are doing to honor Cesarean Awareness Month in your professional practice in our comments section below.

 

 

 

Babies, Cesarean Birth, Childbirth Education, Maternal Mortality, Maternal Mortality Rate, Maternal Quality Improvement, Maternity Care, Medical Interventions, Newborns, Research, Systematic Review , , , , , ,