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A Functional Medicine Approach to Perinatal Mental Health – Part Two

February 20th, 2014 by avatar

In a two part post this week, regular contributor Kathy Morelli shares information about and an interview with Kelly Brogan, MD on her nontraditional approach to working with women who are dealing with perinatal mental health issues.  Today in part two, Dr. Brogan shares information on incorporating a whole body Functional Medicine approach alongside traditional Western medicine to help and support women dealing with postpartum mood and anxiety disorders. Part one of this short blog series ran on Tuesday. – Sharon Muza, Community Manager, Science & Sensibility.

Kathy Morelli (KM): In the news, there’s been a lot of information about the negative impact of a dairy-gluten-and- sugar based diet on the body. Can you tell us a bit about the impact of gluten and sugar on thyroid function after childbirth? Can you reference research on this?

Kelly Brogan, MD (KB): Yes, there’s an explosion of research implicating the immune-modulating and inflammatory effects of gluten and sugar (often co-occuring). Many individuals perceive that they are totally “fine” until that day when they’re not. In reality, there has been a long period of “incubation” of their symptoms.

Istock/GoldenKB

Istock/GoldenKB

When it comes to autoimmunity, we know that the postpartum population is very vulnerable to new onset autoimmune disorders, and we know that autoimmunity requires three ingredients: genetic susceptibility, environmental trigger, and intestinal permeability. This has been well-established by Dr. Alessio Fasano of The Center for Celiac Research.

We know that gluten causes an inflammatory response in all people, locally, in the intestine, and that in a subset of about 80% of people, it provokes intestinal wall changes that allow for compounds, food particles, and bacterial molecules called LPS or lipopolysaccharide into the blood stream. In animal models, LPS is used to induce “depression”. There is a large literature, since 1991, establishing the role of inflammation in depression, including in the postpartum depression population.

We also know of a process called molecular mimicry, whereby, immune responses to a food particle or pathogen can lead to attacks on our own body because of common amino acid structures.

We know how to modify inflammation through diet, and we know how to support appropriate immune response through nutrients such as Vitamin A, D, Alpha Lipoic Acid, probiotics and others. I have written about the research supporting these claims on my website if you are interested in the references, but suffice it to say that elimination of gluten, dairy, corn, soy, and sugar is my first step with patients and a primary reason that I no longer need to use medication. It’s quite powerful.

 KM: And can you elaborate on the impact of dairy products on brain health? Can you share a research article on this?

KB: I don’t think that dairy is an issue for every person with mental health symptoms, but I believe it is a compelling variable to control for.

But sure, I can talk about dairy and its impact on health. In schizophrenia and bipolar, in particular, there are papers discussing the role of casein antibodies in clinical presentations. Some of these papers are listed in the references at the end of this article. Some speculation about the reasons that casein, a protein, particularly from Holstein cows which we use in America, is stimulating to the immune system, relates to its being heavily processed – homogenized and pasteurized – so that the fats and nutrients are no longer in their natural state and are provocative to the immune system.

In a paper by Severance et al (2010), they found that new onset and long-term schizophrenics were 8 times more likely to have circulating antibodies to casein than controls and up to 16.5 times more likely in a subgroup of those with psychotic depression.

kelly brogan head shot

© Kelly Brogan MD

In a separate study, this team found similar results in the setting of Bipolar I diagnosis and found that medication treatment did not mitigate this immune response. In a study this year, Li et al (2012) found that new onset schizophrenia was associated with immune activation and a 34% increased risk of developing schizophrenia if their levels of antibody were 2 standard deviations elevated. Casein and gliadin (a component of gluten) interact with opiate receptors in the brain in an unpredictable way.

KM: Based on your research and clinical practice, looking at it as a public health issue, do you believe that the overall public incidence of postpartum depression and anxiety can be reduced by educating women about modifying their diets and lifestyles?

KB: Absolutely and unconditionally, yes. Conventional psychiatry has made no progress with regard to identifying markers for vulnerable populations. We are overly focused on serotonin and examination. Research by Oberland et al (2008) into serotonin transporter polymorphisms has been confusing and inconsistent.

We must look at the cumulative burden that pregnancy places on some women and how it exposes the dysfunction of their interrelated neuroendocrine systems resulting in depression, anxiety, and psychosis as non-specific indications that there is lifestyle imbalance and inflammation.

I have a detailed research article about the Neuro-inflammatory Models of Postpartum Depression published here for your further reference.

KM: Based on your research and clinical practice, do you believe that the personal incidence of postpartum depression and anxiety can be reduced for a woman modifying her diet and lifestyle?

KB: Yes. In my clinical practice, with the preventive cases that I work with, I have yet to have an incidence of a woman with postpartum onset symptoms, including those women with previous history.

KM: I’ve heard you lecture about the nutrient deficiencies and dietary factors that could feed into an occurrence of postpartum psychosis. Based on your research and clinical practice, do you believe that the incidence of postpartum psychosis can be reduced by a woman being aware of the risk factors and modifying her diet and lifestyle?

KB: I am very interested in research like that of Bergink et al (2012) that suggests a significant overlap between thyroid autoantibodies and postpartum psychosis.

We know that these antibodies portend endocrine dysfunction and we know that thyroid stimulation can result in psychosis. We also have precedent, in the literature of bipolar and schizophrenia being induced by nutrient deficiencies, even as simple as niacin.

It is myopic to abandon simple and potentially effective interventions in the interest of medicating these patients, particularly because of the established incidence of mania and violence toward self and others with SSRI treatment. I believe these medications, in the postpartum population account for incidences of violence that might have otherwise been avoided. Ssristories.com explores these cases.

KM: In the hierarchy of risk factors for perinatal mental illness, such as an individual’s previous history and family history, where do you think the role of lifestyle management and diet modifications fall?

KB: I think that it trumps all other risk factors, and this is because of what we have learned about the 98% of “junk DNA” that we found after the completion of the Human Genome Project.

This is called “epigenetics” and refers to the role of lifestyle or the “exposome” to modify gene expression within one lifetime.

We outsource much of our bodily function to out bodily microbes, as well, which outnumber our human cells 10:1. This is exciting and empowering because it means that we are not condemned by our family histories or genes. We can change them with each bite off a fork, with each step, and with our home environments.

KM: In your work, you do a thorough assessment and then work carefully to support a woman to taper off their psychotropic medications, if possible. Do you advocate that a woman go off of her medications without supervision?

KB: I do not recommend that women go off their medications without supervision.

My initial consultation is 2 hours and I work intimately with patients during tapers. As I deal with some complicated cases, I require patients to optimize their health and wellness prior to initiating a taper to confer resilience and assure adrenal hormone reserves which are often highly perturbed during a taper (the impact of SSRIs on glucocorticoid functioning is well understood).

Then, we initiate a taper that can take 1-2 years.

This is the most responsible way to do it, and keep in mind it cannot always be done.

This is why I believe that true informed consent prior to beginning a medication must include disclosure of dependency. It is not the original symptoms returning, as I was taught to parrot in my training, it is drug-induced withdrawal and associated “relapse” that often looks like agitation and profound anxiety, often novel symptoms to the patient who has never experienced such autonomic nervous system disruption.

KM: Generally, how do you help a woman who is depressed preserve the breastfeeding relationship, if she states that she wished to do so?

KB: Great question. I believe that lactation support is non-optional and must be daily for the first week and perhaps even the first several weeks. Women need to be supported to nurture this skill and to protect it at all costs. They can’t do it alone (in my observation). Here is a link to more information I’ve published about how to help meet breastfeeding goals.

Once lactation is in place, and supply is established, breastfeeding becomes protective of depression. I will be publishing an article about studies supporting this in the coming weeks. I also encourage pumping early (beginning at 2 weeks) so that there is flexibility around night feedings with partner support.

Basically, we have a crisis of failed lactation that I believe relates to environmental toxins called endocrine disruption, undiagnosed thyroid conditions, and insulin resistance from high sugar diet. >Of course, in the end, it’s a woman’s decision to care for and feed her infant as she sees fit. Here’s a link to some very detailed information about finding safe organic formula products.

KM: What do you recommend as readily available methods a woman can do herself to help her heal postpartum depression and anxiety holistically?

KB: I certainly recommend consulting with a holistic provider such as a naturopath, acupuncturist, homeopath, or certified physician. That said, dietary modification, mild exercise, and 20 minutes daily or relaxation response is a great place to start.

KM: What are some of your other projects going on now?

KB: My cup runneth over! I am writing a book that I hope will be a resource to the women I cannot personally see in my busy practice. I maintain an active blog at www.kellybroganmd.com and am also on Huffington Post. I am directing a conference and participating in several in the coming year, and will be providing a course with Aviva Romm, MD to help educate women about holistic health. Fearless Parent will be very active throughout the year with events, blogs, and weekly radio shows to help parents navigate all of the information that comes at them in the realm of thoughtful parenting. Join us!

KM: Thank you for your valuable time & input!

KB: My absolute pleasure. Your interest and support mean a lot to me, as does the mission and educational dedication that Lamaze upholds. I’m an enormous fan!

How do you feel about the information that Dr. Brogan shared?  Have you or your clients had any experience with Functional Medicine?  Would you provide this information to women along with more traditional recommendations, for them to explore when they are being treated for perinatal mood disorders? – SM.

References

Bergink V. et al. Prevalence of autoimmune thyroid dysfunction in postpartum psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 2011;198:264-8. Epub February 22, 2011.

Black, M.M. (2008). Effects of B12 and folate deficiency on brain development in children. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, June (29), 126-131.

Brogan K. (2013). Putting theory into preliminary practice: Neuroinflammatory models of postpartum depression. OA Alternative Medicine, May 01;1(2):12.

Dickerson F, Stallings C, Origoni A, Vaughan C, Khushalani S, Alaedini A, Yolken R. Markers of gluten sensitivity and celiac disease in bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorder. 2011 Feb;13(1):52-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2011.00894.x.

Fasano, A. and colleagues at the Celiac Center, numerous medical research articles.

Jackson, J., Eaton, W., Cascella, N., Fasano, A., Kelly, D. (2012). Neurologic and Psychiatric Manifestations of Celiac Disease and Gluten Sensitivity.Psychiatric Quarterly, 83(1), 91-102, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11126-011-9186-y

Li J, Harris RA, Cheung SW, Coarfa C, Jeong M, et al. (2012) Genomic Hypomethylation in the Human Germline Associates with Selective Structural Mutability in the Human Genome. PLoS Genet 8(5): e1002692. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002692

Niebuhr DW, Li Y, Cowan DN, Weber NS, Fisher JA, Ford GM, Yolken R. Association between casein bovine antibody and new onset schizophrenia among US military personnel. Schizophrenia Research, 2011 May;128(1-3):51-5. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2011.02.005. Epub 2011 Mar 4.

Oberland, TF, Weinberg, J, Papsdorf, M, Grunau, R, Misri, S, & Devlin, AM (2008). Prenatal exposure to maternal depression, neonatal methylation of human glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) and infant cortisol stress responses. Epigenetics, Mar-Apr,3(2), 97-106.

Severance EG, Dupont D, Dickerson FB, Stallings CR, Origoni AE, Krivogorsky B, Yang S, Haasnoot W, Yolken RH. Immune activation by casein dietary antigens in bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorder. 2010 Dec;12(8):834-42. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2010.00879.x.

Perlmutter, D. (2011). Grain brain: The surprising truth about wheat, carbs, and sugar – Your brain’s silent killers. New York: Little, Brown & Company

Depression, Guest Posts, Infant Attachment, Maternal Mental Health, Perinatal Mood Disorders , , , , , , ,

A Functional Medicine Approach to Perinatal Mental Health – Part One

February 18th, 2014 by avatar

 In a two part post this week, regular contributor Kathy Morelli shares information about and an interview with Kelly Brogan, MD on her nontraditional approach to working with women who are dealing with perinatal mental health issues.  Dr. Brogan shares information on incorporating a whole body Functional Medicine approach alongside traditional Western medicine to help and support women dealing with postpartum mood and anxiety disorders. Part two of this short blog series runs on Thursday. – Sharon Muza, Community Manager, Science & Sensibility.

Creative Commons Image: Pamela Machado

Creative Commons Image: Pamela Machado

I’ve been interested in Integrative medicine for many years. I’ve gotten a lot of feedback from Science & Sensibility readers and my psychotherapy clients that they are very interested in holistic approaches to their health.

On a personal level, I struggled with depression at different times in my life. Nineteen years ago, I suffered a long postpartum depression. I didn’t want to take any psychotropic drugs as I was breastfeeding; there wasn’t much research available then about medication and breastfeeding. I looked for other ways to heal. In the short term, homeopathy is what healed my severe depression. On a longer term basis, I studied many forms of mindbody healing: diet, exercise, bodywork and professional counseling techniques have been my holistic program for mental and physical health. I’ve been fortunate that I haven’t had depression in 17 years.

On a professional level, in my clinical practice, I’ve seen the whole gamut of results in my clients’ levels of anxiety and depression when using psycho-trophic drugs: successful, lackluster and very poor results. So, I’m always searching for complementary and gentle therapies to add to my own toolbox and referral list to improve my clients’ mental health.

Disclosure: I want to clarify that I’m not a doctor and I’m not licensed to prescribe medication, but in my role as a licensed counselor, I often share clients with psychiatrists, who do prescribe medications.

Medication Taper: I want to clarify that this article does not suggest that women should discontinue their medication.

In some ways, what is old is new again! Conceptually, functional medicine (FM) mirrors the approach of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), which approaches the patient from a holistic level. However, functional medicine is an evolutionary development in the practice of modern conventional medicine. FM is a systems biology approach. FM uses all the tools now available to the modern medical doctor: current assessment and diagnostic technology, cutting edge research into the interaction of the endocrine, gastrointestinal, and immune systems with our environment and treatment with a range of integrative and pharmaceutical medical therapies.

A doctor trained in this sophisticated approach performs a personal and careful assessment of an individual in order to find and then correct the underlying imbalances in the body, rather than treat separate symptoms. This is a departure from the conventional “organ based” practice of medicine, whereby the focus of diagnosis and treatment of a person is set up in silo-like medical specialties.

Dr. Kelly Brogan practices Holistic Women’s Psychiatry in this manner. She has impressive academic credentials, having studied cognitive neuroscience at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and medicine at Cornell University Medical College. She is Board Certified in both Reproductive Psychiatry and Integrative Medicine and certified in Endocrinology. She is a leader in Functional Medicine. For her clinical work in Holistic Women’s Health Psychiatry, she analyzes and combines the research from the intersection of these three fields. She has appeared at many conferences, including the recent 2013 Postpartum Support International conference, the 2013 Lamaze International conference, is the Medical Director at Fearless Parent, blogs for Green Medical Information and has blogged for Postpartum Progress.

At her private practice in New York City, she offers a supervised lifestyle and food-based approach for women to manage perinatal mood disorders without psychotropic drugs.

This article is meant as an introduction to a different medical approach to women’s mental health. The functional medicine approach integrates the emergent research of the past three decades that suggests that a modern diet high in processed food, carbohydrates and sugar not only impacts the body with such chronic diseases as diabetes and heart disease, but also impacts brain health and contribute to the rising rates of mental illnesses such as depression and postpartum depression, postpartum psychosis and more severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia.

Kathy Morelli (KM): Dr. Brogan, I was excited to discover your work via the Fearless Parent website, where you’re the Medical Director. You’re also active on the Green Medical Information website, where you regularly blog and present webinars. I admit, I was at first skeptical. However, after attending your webinar, and finding the information to be so very detailed and well-researched, I’m very intrigued. How did you become interested in your particular niche, Reproductive Psychiatry and Maternal Mental Health?

Dr. Kelly Brogan (KB): My post-residency fellowship training was in medical psychiatry, which is looking at how bodily problems like infection or liver disease can cause psychiatric symptoms. I specifically focused on reproductive psychiatry and the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders related to menses, pregnancy, and postpartum.

Despite my extensive training in helping women to navigate the risks and benefits of medication treatment during this vulnerable time period, I found that many women chose to discontinue medication.

Because of this and also because I wanted to help the women in my care optimize their health for anticipated or current pregnancy, I decided to investigate some common body-based drivers of psychiatric symptoms. I focused on these areas of the body: thyroid and adrenal dysfunction, food intolerances and gut infections, and sugar imbalances, rather than solely looking at the neurochemistry of the brain.

I also began to research what evidence there was to support mood-enhancing treatments that were also beneficial to the baby (given maternal deficiency) such as vitamin D, fatty acids, magnesium, and b vitamins.

Now I focus on inflammatory models of depression and anxiety and look at environmental exposures first and supporting the immune system and minimizing inflammation second. I haven’t started a patient on an antidepressant in some time.

KM: Dr. Brogan, as I understand it, you approach your work by focusing on the underlying human physiology of depression and anxiety, which is impacted by such factors as a sedentary lifestyle and a nutrient-poor diet which, in turn, causes inflammation. The inflammation in the body negatively impacts hormonal and neurotransmitter production and balance, which causes mindbody ailments, such as thyroid dysfunction and depression and anxiety. How would a woman coming to your office experience her visit with you differently than she would in a conventional psychiatric visit?

KB: The backbone of my clinical interventions is a sophisticated diagnostic assessment which includes a large battery of blood work, stool samples, salivary hormonal assessments, and urinary organic acids. In this way, I can personalize interventions rather than just empirically suppress symptoms. All of my patients require expert nutritional guidance, which I support them through, as well as personally tailored exercise and relaxation response interventions.

I’ve developed deep concern for the excessive, and what I believe to be irresponsible, use of medications to manage chronic disease. We have lost touch with our body’s native ability to heal itself and to correct, through elaborate checks and balances, any disturbances.

We’ve lost touch with this because we look to doctors when we should first be looking to our homes, our plates, and our minds to see how we can better facilitate that healing process, as you have done, Kathy. I believe that psychiatric medications, but also common medications prescribed for pain, acid reflux, and high cholesterol are wreaking havoc on the body’s ability to function optimally.

Here is an example of how I work with a simpler case: A lovely woman comes in to see me. She says she has debilitating melancholic depression, no energy and brain fog. I even note some instability when she walks. When I take her history, she tells me she was put on an acid blocking medication 2 years ago for her heartburn. I ask about her diet, which is high in sugar and fried foods, which is most likely causing her stomach discomfort. It’s well known clinically and in the research literature that long-term suppression of stomach acid blocks the absorption of the essential B12 vitamin.

Did you know B12 is one of the building blocks of life? A B12 deficiency is a silent condition that disrupts the myelination process, which leads to depression, confusion and eventually, to brain shrinkage. B12 protects your brain and nervous system, regulates rest and mood cycles and also keeps the immune system functioning properly. In fact, in persons over 65, B12 deficiency is linked to memory decline, brain shrinkage and a greater risk of age-related dementia, as the production of hydrochloric acid slows down with age.

In addition, because my patient is of childbearing age, it is very important to help her maintain her proper B12 levels, in order to help maintain her baby’s health. An infant born to a woman deficient in B12 is at serious risk for negative neurological symptoms, such as lethargy, developmental delays and delayed cognitive and motor development.

So, back to my patient. I’ll run a simple blood test to determine B12 levels to see if this lovely woman has either a suboptimal B12 level and/or a secondary marker of B12 deficiency. If so, I treat her with non-invasive B12, which can resolve all of her symptoms.

I do this because there are cases in the research literature describing patients receiving electroshock and antipsychotic medications before someone bothered to check their B12 levels and then successfully treat them to remission with this vitamin!

I work overtime to uncover what might be driving symptoms and driving inflammation. I don’t believe that the answer lies in a psychiatric medication, and I do believe that these medications can cause significant short and long-term side effects. Some have posited that, in addition to often containing synthetic preservatives, titanium, and gluten, medications such as Prozac contain fluoridated molecules which may impact the body as fluoride – a neuroendocrine toxin – does.

If they were seeing someone else, they might be started on an antidepressant after a 45 minute clinical contact. They can expect to take that antidepressant for the rest of their lives because few prescribers are experienced in medication discontinuation.

On Thursday, Kathy continues her interview with Dr. Brogan, sharing more information about the role of diet on the childbearing woman’s mental health and how the functional medicine approach can help to improve perinatal mental health and provide help to those who need it. – SM

References

Bergink V. et al. Prevalence of autoimmune thyroid dysfunction in postpartum psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 2011;198:264-8. Epub February 22, 2011.

Black, M.M. (2008). Effects of B12 and folate deficiency on brain development in children. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, June (29), 126-131.

Brogan K. (2013). Putting theory into preliminary practice: Neuroinflammatory models of postpartum depression. OA Alternative Medicine, May 01;1(2):12.

Dickerson F, Stallings C, Origoni A, Vaughan C, Khushalani S, Alaedini A, Yolken R. Markers of gluten sensitivity and celiac disease in bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorder. 2011 Feb;13(1):52-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2011.00894.x.

Fasano, A. and colleagues at the Celiac Center, numerous medical research articles.

Jackson, J., Eaton, W., Cascella, N., Fasano, A., Kelly, D. (2012). Neurologic and Psychiatric Manifestations of Celiac Disease and Gluten Sensitivity.Psychiatric Quarterly, 83(1), 91-102, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11126-011-9186-y

Li J, Harris RA, Cheung SW, Coarfa C, Jeong M, et al. (2012) Genomic Hypomethylation in the Human Germline Associates with Selective Structural Mutability in the Human Genome. PLoS Genet 8(5): e1002692. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002692

Niebuhr DW, Li Y, Cowan DN, Weber NS, Fisher JA, Ford GM, Yolken R. Association between casein bovine antibody and new onset schizophrenia among US military personnel. Schizophrenia Research, 2011 May;128(1-3):51-5. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2011.02.005. Epub 2011 Mar 4.

Oberland, TF, Weinberg, J, Papsdorf, M, Grunau, R, Misri, S, & Devlin, AM (2008). Prenatal exposure to maternal depression, neonatal methylation of human glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) and infant cortisol stress responses. Epigenetics, Mar-Apr,3(2), 97-106.

Severance EG, Dupont D, Dickerson FB, Stallings CR, Origoni AE, Krivogorsky B, Yang S, Haasnoot W, Yolken RH. Immune activation by casein dietary antigens in bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorder. 2010 Dec;12(8):834-42. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2010.00879.x.

Perlmutter, D. (2011). Grain brain: The surprising truth about wheat, carbs, and sugar – Your brain’s silent killers. New York: Little, Brown & Company.

Depression, Guest Posts, Infant Attachment, Maternal Mental Health, New Research, Perinatal Mood Disorders, Postpartum Depression , , , , , , , ,

What is Pregnancy Negation? What is the Childbirth Professional’s Role?

November 14th, 2013 by avatar

Today on the blog, regular contributor Kathy Morelli shares information on an uncommon but very serious mental health disorder called pregnancy negation (pregnancy denial and pregnancy concealment) that can occur in women.  This unusual phenomena may never have crossed your radar or you may have met women who have experienced this situation.    Learn more here about this illness and what you can do as a childbirth professional, should you meet a woman or family dealing with this situation. –  Sharon Muza, Community Manager for Science & Sensibility.

Original Painting © Johann Heinrich Füssli

The research studies about negation of pregnancy generally consist of small sample sizes, so there isn’t a lot of data available about negation of pregnancy. More study is needed in order to understand this topic more thoroughly. I do see this phenomena in my psychotherapy practice, so I believe it’s a topic that birth professionals might see it in their community as well.

Negation of pregnancy, a term that encompasses both pregnancy denial and pregnancy concealment, are rare, but not uncommon, disorders of pregnancy. One in 475 pregnancies result in negation of pregnancy. A very minute portion of this statistic results in neonaticide- the act of killing a baby in the first 24 hours of life (Beier et al, 2006).

As with other psychological conditions, the underlying etiology of negation of pregnancy exists on a spectrum. The person can suffer from a lifelong, persistent “splitting” of the self due to trauma, she can suffer from a persistent biological mental illness, such as schizophrenia, or she can be experiencing a type of severe adjustment disorder.

Current research indicates that not all women who experience negation of pregnancy have previous diagnoses of serious and persistent mental illness. Some women who experience negation of pregnancy have pre-existing diagnoses of biploar with psychotic features and schizophrenia, and psychosis is part of their life experiences. But others do not have a previous diagnosis and after integrating the episode of negation of pregnancy, they adjust to their life situation and cope realistically.

Definition 

Pregnancy denial is defined as a woman’s unawareness, in varying degrees, of her pregnancy. Pregnancy concealment is defined as actively deciding and hiding the pregnancy from others. Pregnancy denial and pregnancy concealment often co-occur and occur intermittently. There is usually a great deal of shame, fear, guilt and dissociation, a strong psychological and emotional defense, accompanying this disorder. Due to the level of emotional conflict around the pregnancy, there are gradations of denial and complexity and subtlety of emotional response from both the pregnant woman and those around her.

The term negation of pregnancy is also used to encompass and describe these co-occuring disorders, whereas the internal process is called denial and the external process is called concealment. Therefore, it is considered the same process, but the woman’s defense mechanisms vary in intensity.

Neonaticide, the killing of an infant on the day of birth, is a form of infanticide that is often preceded by pregnancy denial. Neonaticide can be one of the complications of pregnancy denial.

Pregnancy denial is a real phenomena that has a long history of documentation, by doctors, mothers, their families and artists.

One famous literary exploration of pregnancy denial and neonaticide is illustrated in George Eliot’s novel, Adam Beade, published in 1859. It is the novel of a woman’s experience, examining the intersection between women’s unique emotions around reproduction and their disempowered social standing. Taking place in 1799, the story is about a love triangle involving Hetty, a 17 year old girl. She becomes pregnant out of wedlock. Hetty knows she is pregnant, but never openly acknowledges this. She knows she will face extreme shame and ostracization by the town, should anyone find out. She successfully hides her pregnancy and gives birth to her baby in a field. She commits neonaticide, abandoning her baby boy where she birthed him.

Characteristics of Women Who Negate Pregnancy

Early research indicated that pregnancy denial and neonaticide is more likely to occur  in women who are young and unmarried, where the relationship with the father is dissolving or non-existent and the woman lives at home with relatives.

However, more recent research shows that pregnancy denial and neonaticide occurs in women of all age groups, cultures and marital status in response to a conflicted pregnancy. Many women already have several other children, so it is not always the first time mother who negates her pregnancy.

Research by Shelton and colleagues (2011) indicates that pregnancy at an early age, multiple young children, a history of childhood abuse and trauma, current fear of abandonment (even if in a stable relationship), and a deprived social situation are all risk factors and common characteristics for women who negate their pregnancy.

The pathway to pregnancy denial and concealment often begins with an unplanned pregnancy. The woman has accompanying feelings of extreme fear and shame. She begins with pregnancy concealment. She hides her pregnancy with baggy clothes and isolates herself in her room. To help facilitate concealment, she sees less and less of people. Thus, she becomes more and more emotionally isolated.

Eventually, she finds she has no one to confide in. This results in a vicious cycle, and her emotional defenses develop a sense of pregnancy denial. The pregnancy denial is described by researchers as intermittent, her lack of self-awareness comes and goes and she is able to compartmentalize her pregnancy. She successfully dissociates from her body sensations.

The denial and dissociation is so potent that women often describe beginning birth pains as flu symptoms, gas pain and menstrual cramps. Women often go to the bathroom and deliver the baby silently, with others nearby. Women often describe the feeling of giving birth like having to defecate and are shocked when a baby appears.

Women in this type of delivery report dissociative symptoms at the birth and afterward when coping with the newborn. Women also often report a fantasy that the infant was preterm or stillborn. Often, sadly, the outcome for infants born to women who are experiencing negation of pregnancy are death a short time after birth, either from drowning in a toilet bowl, or hitting their head on the floor in a precipitous, unassisted birth.

Another fascinating aspect of pregnancy concealment and denial is that the family and even doctors are drawn into “community denial” by the emotional intensity of the denial. Interestingly, in one study, only 5 out of 28 women studied who negated their pregnancy had any family members inquire about their pregnancy at all (Amon et al, 2012)! Another study indicates that even long term family doctors who know the woman well will sometimes fail to diagnose the pregnancy (Amon et al, 2012).

Treatment

Treatment for negation of pregnancy is as nuanced and varied as each individual case. Whenever there is dissociation of parts of reality and parts of the self, the treatment path can include techniques used to treat post-traumatic stress. Such techniques would include EMDR, guided imagery, object relations techniques embedded in an overall therapeutic structure that balances leaving a woman’s psychological defenses intact, while at the same time helping her through her issues of denial (Anonymous, 2003).

Depending on the cause and severity of the negation of pregnancy, the processing of dissociated emotional material, the buried shame, the confusing physical symptoms, and the integration of the parts of her self could take place over an extended period of time in a safe, therapeutic atmosphere.

In general, directly asking or accusing a woman who is negating her pregnancy about her situation isn’t an effective treatment method. In order to survive, the person has most likely developed a method of dissociative “splitting” or “compartmentalizing” differing parts of the self. It is a normal psychological response to dissociate from trauma in order to survive. Dissociative coping exists along a continuum, from intermittent denial to having developed separate parts of the self to contain the trauma (Amon, 2012; Anonymous, 2003).

For example, in order to survive complex emotional trauma, such as childhood abuse, incest, rape, pregnancy from rape/incest, a woman would survive by dissociating. She may have unconsciously developed a way to “split” or “compartmentalize” parts of her self. Her unconscious coping mechanism assigns one part of the self to be covertly sexually active while another part of the self overtly maintains the social and familial facade that she is not sexually active. The psychological defenses can be so strong that she has intermittent dissociative awareness about her pregnancy and even amnesia around childbirth.

On the other hand, a woman may be experiencing a less mild form of dissociation and negation of pregnancy. She may need time to integrate her pregnancy into her life and shift towards healthy adjustment, coping and planning.

What birth professionals can do

If you suspect you have encountered a woman with this condition, be aware of your own reactions to her situation. Convey an accepting attitude about her situation. It’s best not to ask her overt questions about her circumstances. Ask open-ended questions, wait for her responses. 

Importantly, convey an accepting attitude about sexuality, pregnancy and motherhood, without being overt.

Have a good set of referrals to health professionals, including mental health professionals,  in your area. You may not be able to help her in the moment, but there may be another time you’ll see her and she might be open to accepting help. Your accepting attitude could be part of her healing and reaching out.

Conclusion

To sum up, negation of pregnancy has been documented in the popular literature and in medical literature for many years. It was once thought that negation of pregnancy only occurs in young and unmarried women, but current research shows that older women with multiple children experience this as well. It is a condition of many emotional and psychological nuances. In a very rare number of cases, can lead to neonaticide.

As a birth professional in your community, you can help by developing an awareness and understanding of negation of pregnancy as a real condition, with many emotional and psychological nuances. By being accepting and by having a solid set of referrals for her and her family if she reaches out to you. More study is needed in order to understand this topic more thoroughly. 

References

Amon, S., Putkonon, H., Weizmann-Henelius, G., Almiron, M.P., Gormann, A.K., Voracke, M., Eronen, M., Yourstone, J., Friedrich, M. & Klier, C.M. (2012). Potential predictors in neonaticide: the impact of the circumstances of pregnancy. Archive of Women’s Mental Health, 15, 167-174.

Anonymous (2003). How Could Anyone Do That? A therapists struggle with countertransference. In M.G. Spinelli (Ed.), Infanticide: Psychosocial and Legal Perspectives on Mothers Who Kill (pp. 201 – 208). American Psychiatric Publishing, Washington, D.C.

Shelton, J.L, Corey, T., Donaldson, W.H. & Dennison, E.H. (2011). Neonaticide: A comprehensive review of investigative and pathologic aspects of 55 cases. Journal of Family Violence, 26, 263-276.

Miller, L. J. (2003). Denial of Pregnancy. In M.G. Spinelli (Ed.), Infanticide: Psychosocial and Legal Perspectives on Mothers Who Kill (pp. 81- 103). American Psychiatric Publishing, Washington, D.C.

Spinelli, M. G., (2003). Neonaticide: A systematic investigation of 17 cases. In M.G. Spinelli (Ed.), Infanticide: Psychosocial and Legal Perspectives on Mothers Who Kill (pp. 105 – 118). American Psychiatric Publishing, Washington, D.C.

About Kathy Morelli

Kathy Morelli is a Licensed Professional Counselor in Wayne, NJ and the Director of BirthTouch®, LLC. She provides Marriage and Family counseling in Wayne, New Jersey with a special interest in perinatal mood disorders, sexual abuse and its impact on parenting. EMDR is one of the mindbody therapies she uses to address trauma.   She blogs about the emotions of pregnancy, birth, postpartum and couples. Kathy is the author of BirthTouch® for Parents-To-Be and BirthTouch® Healing for Parents in the NICU. Kathy has lectured on BirthTouch® at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey’s Semmelweis Conference for Midwifery and at birth conferences. She presents trainings to allied health/birth organizations about maternal mental health, family systems and good-enough parenting and is found on web media, such as PBS’ This Emotional Life, writing and speaking about this subject. She volunteers on Postpartum Support International’s warmline. Kathy co-moderates #MHON , a psycho-educational and supportive Twitter chat led by credentialed Mental Health professionals around mental health issues, working to reduce the stigma around mental illness.

 

 

 

 

 

Babies, Birth Trauma, Childbirth Education, Depression, Guest Posts, Infant Attachment, Maternity Care, News about Pregnancy, Parenting an Infant, Prenatal Illness, Trauma work , , , , , , ,

Giving Birth after Battle: Increased Risk of Postpartum Depression for Women in Military

November 11th, 2013 by avatar

Today, November 11th is Veteran’s Day in the United States and Americans honor those who have served and continue to serve in the Armed Forces in order to protect our country.  Today on Science & Sensibility, regular contributor Walker Karraa, PhD, takes a look at the impact serving in battle has on women who go on to birth.  In an exclusive interview with expert Cynthia LeardMann, Walker shares with S&S readers what the study says and receives more indepth information that provides additional insight into just what women in the military face in regards to their increased risk of PPMADs.- Sharon Muza, Community Manager, Science & Sensibility

Introduction

The rate of postpartum mood or anxiety disorders in general US population for new mothers is 10-22%1-3.  Although approximately 16,000 active duty women give birth annually4, less is known regarding the prevalence of postpartum mood disorders in this population. In a striking finding, Do et al., (2013)5 recently reported “Service women with PPD had 42.2 times the odds to be diagnosed with suicidality in the postpartum period compared to service women without PPD; dependent spouses with PPD had 14.5 times the odds compared to those without PPD” (p.2)

Pixabay © David Mark. 2013

Furthermore, a recent study, Is military deployment a risk factor for maternal depression?6 , examined the relationship between deployment experience before or after childbirth, and postpartum depression in a representative sample of U.S. servicewomen.  The objectives included addressing the lack of research regarding maternal depression in military mothers.

I am honored to have had the opportunity to interview Cynthia A. LeardMann, MPH, Senior Epidemiologist at the Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Naval Health Research Center, and Department of Deployment Health Research regarding this important study. Particularly, I inquired as to how childbirth educators might integrate this data in practice, and how childbirth education might be suggested for future intervention.

Walker Karraa: Can you describe for our readers how the rate of maternal depression was found to be attributed to experiencing combat while deployed?

Cynthia LeardMann: In this study, the rate of maternal depression was highest among women who deployed to the recent conflicts and reported combat experiences.  Among women who gave birth, 16 to 17% screened positive for maternal depression who deployed and had combat-like experiences prior to or following childbirth. Rates were between 10 and 11% for women who did not deploy and between 7 and 8% for women who deployed and did not report combat-like experiences.

Moreover, we found that women who deployed after childbirth and experienced combat had twofold higher odds of screening positive for maternal depression compared with women who did not deploy after childbirth, after adjusting for prior mental health status, and demographic, behavioral, and military characteristics. However, this increased risk appeared to be primarily related to experiencing combat rather than childbirth experiences.

WK: Working with the Millennium Cohort Study7 benefitted the ability to investigate the relationship between military deployment and increased risk of maternal depression. Can you briefly describe the MCS and the process of working with it?

CL: Launched in the summer of 2001, the Millennium Cohort Study  is the largest longitudinal study of military service members, including active duty and Reserve/National Guard members from all services. The primary study objective is to evaluate the impact of military service on long-term health.  Since family relationships play an important role in the functioning and well-being of US military service members, in 2011 the Millennium Cohort Study was expanded to include spouses of military personnel. The overarching goal of this Family Study is to assess the impact of military service and deployment on family health.

Crisis line resources for active military and their familiesMilitary One Source1-800-342-9647

Crisis line resources for veterans and their families

Veterans Crisis Line

1-800-273-8255 (press 1)

Online chat is also available

WK: It was interesting that the rates were higher for women in the Army as compared to women serving in US Air Force or US Navy. Can you share the thinking around possible reasons for that difference?

CL: Women serving in the Army may be deployed longer and more frequently than those serving in the Air Force and Navy. In addition, there may be more ongoing imminent fear of deployment and while on deployment they may experience more intense or severe combat-like exposures, which may lead to increased risk of depression.

WK: How did you define combat-like exposure for your sample?

CL: Deployed women were classified as having combat-like exposures if they reported personal exposure to one or more of the following in the 3 years prior to follow-up: person’s death due to war, disaster, or tragic event; physical abuse; dead and/or decomposing bodies; maimed soldiers or civilians; or prisoners of war or refugees.

WK: One of the recommendations from your study was the need for early intervention and reintegration programs for service personnel. What are some examples that you would hope to see in the future? What role do you see childbirth education playing in the prevention or early intervention of maternal depression in military personnel? 

CL: Currently there are some programs that focus on supporting service members and families before, during, and after deployments, such as the Yellow Ribbon Reintegration Program. This DoD (Department of Defense)-wide effort prepares Reserve and National Guard families for the challenges of deployment, educates them on programs that are available to help ease their concerns about reintegrating into the community, and provides information about seeking mental health care. While more services and programs are needed, these types of resources may successfully reduce the emotional and psychological impact of deployment. Childbirth education may play an important role as it may help couples understand and identify various feelings and symptoms related to mental disorders that may arise after childbirth. If educated, the mother or her partner may be more aware of certain symptoms and feel more comfortable seeking mental healthcare.

WK: The rate of comorbid PTSD in women who screened positive for depression was high (58%). Given what we know about the prevalence of PTSD following a traumatic childbirth in general population, what are your thoughts regarding how traumatic childbirth may have played a role? 

CL: We did not obtain any data on the childbirth experience itself, but it is possible that non-combat traumatic experiences, including traumatic childbirth, may have increased the risk for depression with comorbid PTSD.

WK: Would data on mode of delivery be useful in future studies?

CL: The Millennium Cohort Study does not currently obtain data on mode of delivery, but we could investigate mode of delivery among active service members using medical data records. We do not have current plans to examine mode of delivery, but it may be useful in future studies.

WK: What is the next phase of this important research?

CL: Currently, we are investigating the potential association between deployment and other related reproductive outcomes, like miscarriages and perceived impaired fecundity. We are also planning to examine depression among military spouses. We would like to better understand the inter-relationships and associations between service members and their spouses, including maternal depression and reproductive health outcomes.

WK: Many of our readers work with military families as childbirth professionals (doulas, lactation consultants, midwives, and childbirth educators). How would you recommend childbirth professionals integrate the findings in your study?

CL: The current findings add further evidence that screening and early intervention of depression among new mothers is critical, since parental depression can have a profound and lasting impact on children and families. In addition, the findings support the need for effective post deployment social support and reintegration programs, especially for women who have had combat-like experiences during deployment.

Conclusion

The service of the women in our military is a dedication for which I am grateful and humbled. The findings here underscore the critical need for better screening, intervention, and social support for childbearing women in the military who see combat during deployment.

As childbirth professionals, how do you see your role in supporting military women with mental health? And how might Lamaze become a champion in this area?

Acknowledgements

I would like to extend my appreciation to Ms. LeardMann for agreeing to the interview, and taking the lead in getting approval for its content.  Additional acknowledgement is extended to military personnel who participated in reading, reviewing and clearing the content for publication. And thanks to Sharon Muza for her continued support of the research regarding perinatal mood and anxiety disorders.

References

  1. Gaynes BN, Gavin N, Meltzer-Brody S, et al. (2005). Perinatal depression: Prevalence, screening accuracy, and screening outcomes. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No.119. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, No. 05-E006-2.
  2. O’Hara MW, Swain AM. (1996). Rates and risk of postpartum depression: A meta-analysis. Int Rev Psychiatry,8, 37–54.
  3.  Peindl KS, Wisner KL, Hanusa BH. (2004). Identifying depression in the first postpartum year: Guidelines for office-based screening and referral. Journal of Affect Disord,80, 37–44.
  4. Rychnovsky, J. & Beck, C.T. (2006). Screening for postpartum depression in military women with the postpartum depression screening scale. Military Medicine,171, 1100-1104.
  5. Do, T., Hu, Z., Otto, J., & Rohrbeck, P. (2013). Depression and suicidality after first time deliveries during the postpartum period, active component service women and dependent spouses, U.S. Armed Forces, 2007-2012. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report, 20(9), 2-9.
  6. Nguyen, S., Leardman, C.A., Smith, B., Conlin, A. S., Slymen, D. J., Hooper, T. I., Ryan, M. A. K., & Smith, T. C. (2013). Is military deployment a risk factor for maternal depression? Journal of Women’s Health, 22(1), 9-18. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2012.3606
  7. Smith, T.C. (2009). The U.S. Department of Defense Millenium Cohort Study: Career span and beyond longitudinal follow-up. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 51, 1193-1201

About Walker Karraa

Walker Karraa, PhD is a perinatal mental health researcher, advocate and writer. She is currently a regular perinatal mental health contributor for Lamaze International’s Science and Sensibility,Giving Birth With Confidence, and the American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) Midwives Connection.Walker has interviewed leading researchers and providers, such as Katherine Wisner, Cheryl Beck, Michael C. Lu and Karen Kleiman. Walker was a certified birth doula (DONA), and the founding President of PATTCh, an organization founded by Penny Simkin dedicated to the prevention and treatment of traumatic childbirth. Walker is currently Program Co-Chair for the American Psychological Association (APA) Trauma Psychology Division 56. She is writing a book regarding her research on the transformational dimensions of postpartum depression. Walker is an 11 year breast cancer survivor, and lives in Sherman Oaks, CA with her two children and husband.


Childbirth Education, Depression, Guest Posts, Maternal Mental Health, Postpartum Depression, PTSD, Research, Uncategorized , , , , , , , , ,

Placentophagy: A Pop-Culture Phenomenon or an Evidence Based Practice?

June 11th, 2013 by avatar

© Robin Gray-Reed, RN, IBCLC
mindfulmidwife.com

“Do women really eat their placentas?” I am asked this question in every Lamaze class I teach. This question is often accompanied by a raised eyebrow and a giggle. Many times, at least one mother will sheepishly avert her eyes and mention that she’s thinking about doing it because she’s heard of the amazing benefits that can be achieved by consuming her placenta. Our class discussion commences with differing opinions, theories, vague and distorted facts and many grunts of “ugh, gross!” It then becomes my job as the childbirth educator to sort this out and offer my students evidence based information with regards to placentophagy.

There’s been quite a bit in the news this last week or so about placenta eating.  Recently, Kim Kardashian, on her show, “Keeping up with the Kardashians,” queried her doctor about consuming her placenta after birth. She wanted to know if he thought that by consuming it, it would help keep her looking younger – a veritable fountain of youth. Don’t you think it makes you look younger?” Kim asks her doctor during the episode. “Some people believe in that,” her doctor replies. “There are cookbooks on placentas.”

In 2012, Mad Men star, January Jones let it be known that she consumed her encapsulated placenta after her baby was born, per her doula’s suggestion.  ”Jones’s secret to staying high energy through the grueling shooting schedule? ‘I have a great doula who makes sure I’m eating well, with vitamins and teas, and with placenta capsulation.’ “

Hollywood seems to have picked up on the trend. Locally, in Pittsburgh, were I practice, there are at least three placenta encapsulation specialists and a few others who dabble in it. Talking to one recently, she mentioned that she was busy enough that she needed to bring in a partner to help her. It would appear that the trend is indeed on the rise.

Let’s take an in-depth look into the modern practice of placentophagy and the evidence behind it.

 How can placenta be consumed?

  • Eaten raw
  • Cooked in a stew or stir fry, or other recipes
  • Made into a tincture
  • Dehydrated and put into smoothies
  • Dehydrated and encapsulated in pill form

Most modern mothers will choose to encapsulate their placenta. Taking it in a pill form seems to be most palatable for many women interested in consuming their placenta. The placenta is washed, steamed (sometime with other ingredients such as jalapeño, ginger and lemon), sliced, dehydrated, pulverized and encapsulated. Within 24-48 hours after birth, the mother has her placenta back in pill form and will ingest a certain number of pills each day.

Why would a woman want to take placenta capsules?

There are many claims made about the benefits of consuming placenta. The list below is from Placenta Benefits.info

The baby’s placenta, contained in capsule form, is believed to:

  • contain the mother’s own natural hormones
  • be perfectly made for that mother
  • balance the mother’s system
  • replenish depleted iron
  • give the mother more energy
  • lessen bleeding postnatally
  • been shown to increase milk production
  • help the mother to have a happier postpartum period
  • hasten return of uterus to pre-pregnancy state
  • be helpful during menopause

This is a rather amazing list. It would appear that consuming placenta postpartum is a bit of a magic bullet. This, in and of itself, makes me wary of the claims. There are a number of oft cited studies to back these claims up. However, my research turns up only studies in animals, anthropological studies and a recent survey of mothers who consume placenta.

© Bjorna Hoen Photography
bjornahoen.com

Animal studies are good preliminary research and may provide indication for further study in humans. In and of themselves, they provide insufficient information to recommend placentophagy in human mothers.

Anthropological studies are a fascinating peek into human evolution, history and practice. They may provide clues as to why humans, as a rule, do not consume placenta. Or for those limited cultures that did/do consume it, the rationale behind doing so may be revealed. However, as with animal studies, anthropology alone does not give us cause to say that we should or should not be participating in placentophagy.

There is ongoing research out of Buffalo, NY by Mark Kristal, as well as from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas by Daniel Benyshek and Sharon Young on placentophagy. I look forward to their further contributions and hope their work provides impetus for additional hard science.

To date, there is not one double-blind placebo controlled study on human placentophagy.

Although advocates claim that these nutrients and hormones assumed to be present in both the prepared and unprepared forms of placenta are responsible for many benefits to postpartum mothers, exceedingly little research has been conducted to assess these claims and no systematic analysis has been performed to evaluate the experiences of women who engage in this behavior. (Selander et al. 2013)

 A note on Selander, et al: Jodi Selander is the owner of Placenta Benefits LTD. Her financial conflict of interest is noted in the survey.

What we have is anecdotal evidence from mothers who have consumed placenta (Selander 2013). Care providers who witness the effects of placentophagy in the mothers have been noted as well. There are a number of studies in animals, both with regards to behavioral and, chemical and nutritional benefits.  There are a number of anthropological studies, as well as a recent survey (Selander 2013).

What we truly lack is a double-blind, placebo controlled human study of the affects of placentophagy.

“While women in our sample reported various effects which were attributed to placentophagy, the basis of those subjective experiences and the mechanisms by which those reported effects occur are currently unknown. Future research focusing on the analysis of placental tissue is needed in order to identify and quantify any potentially harmful or beneficial substances contained in human placenta… ultimately, a more comprehensive understanding of maternal physiological responses to placentophagy and its effects on maternal mood must await studies employing a placebo-controlled double blind clinical trial research design.” (Selander 2013)

 This leaves us with a few unanswered questions. 

  1. Is the benefit we see in the human mother after consuming placenta because she has consumed it, or is this placebo effect?
  2. Are their benefits or risks to consuming amniotic fluid after birth?
  3. If there is no biological imperative for human mothers to consume placenta, is there a reason for that? Is this a reason suggesting harm from eating placenta, a social norm, or something larger with regards to our need for bonding with our community of women during and after birth?

“This need for greater sociality during delivery then, in combination with the consequent pressure to conform to cultural norms, led to a strengthening of socials bonds and a reduction in the likelihood of placentophagia.” (Kristal 2012)

Coming full circle; how do we approach the topic of placentophagy in our Lamaze classes? Keep it simple. As of today, consuming placenta is not an evidence-based practice. Therefore, we cannot directly recommend it to our students.

However, to support our students’ autonomny, I believe a mother should be able to take her placenta home and do with it as she will. If your students wish to engage in this practice, I’d encourage them to speak to their care providers prenatally, to ensure safe handling of the placenta and to set appropriate expectations at birth.

References:

Kristal, M. B. (1980). Placentophagia: A biobehavioral enigma (or< i> De gustibus non disputandum est</i>). Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews,4(2), 141-150.

Kristal, M. B., DiPirro, J. M., & Thompson, A. C. (2012). Placentophagia in humans and nonhuman mammals: Causes and consequences. Ecology of Food and Nutrition51(3), 177-197.

Selander, J. (2013), Placenta Benefits, placentabenefits.info. Retrieved June 09, 2013, from http://placentabenefits.info/index.asp.

Selander, J., Cantor, A., Young, S. M., & Benyshek, D. C. (2013). Human Maternal Placentophagy: A Survey of Self-Reported Motivations and Experiences Associated with Placenta Consumption. Ecology of food and nutrition52(2), 93-115.

Soykova-Pachnerova E, et. al. (1954)  “Placenta as Lactagagen” Gynaecologia 138(6):617-627

Young, S. M., Benyshek, D. C., & Lienard, P. (2012). The conspicuous absence of placenta consumption in human postpartum females: The fire hypothesis. Ecology of Food and Nutrition51(3), 198-217.

 

Childbirth Education, Depression, Evidence Based Medicine, Guest Posts, Maternal Mental Health, New Research, Perinatal Mood Disorders, Postpartum Depression, PTSD, Research, Uncategorized , , , , , , ,