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Mary Jo Podgurski, EdD, LCCE, Receives National Award for Work With Teens

October 21st, 2014 by avatar

Mary Jo Podgurski, RNC, EdD, LCCE, FACCE has been selected to receive the 2014 Carol Mendez Cassell Award for Excellence in Sexuality Education by the Healthy Teen Network.  Dr. Podgurski will be in Austin, Texas on Wednesday, October 22nd to accept the award at this year’s Healthy Teen Network conference: Synergy: Achieving More Together.

© Mary Jo Podgurski

© Mary Jo Podgurski

The Healthy Teen Network builds capacity among professionals and organizations through education, advocacy, and networking so that they can assist all adolescents and young adults, including teen parents, to have access to the services and education that allow them to make responsible choices about childbearing and family formation, and are supported and empowered to lead healthy sexual, reproductive, and family lives.

Dr. Podgurski could not be more deserving of this award. Her impact on the lives of the young people lucky enough to have been exposed to or participated in one of Dr. Podgurski’s programs is profound.  This woman is has a heart of gold.  At the top of Dr. Podgurski’s CV is the following statement, which so clearly speaks to what drives and shapes her work and her heart:

Perhaps the most important biographical fact needed to know about me deals with joy. I am blessed to spend my days interacting with young people and I treasure every moment; I believe deeply in their wisdom. My primary mantra is simple: Each person is a person of worth. Actually that tenet translates well to my primary value – that all must be respected, regardless of age, size, race, ethnicity, sexuality, sexual orientation, gender, gender identity, socio-economic status, education, religion, or position in society. My papa was my spiritual guide and he taught me that we are “all in this together.”   

Dr. Mary Jo Podgurski is the Director of The Washington Health System Teen Outreach and President and Founder of the Academy for Adolescent Health, Inc. Her undergraduate education is in nursing and education, her master’s work was in counseling, and her doctorate is in education. She began volunteering with pregnant teens in the 70s and has created numerous youth development and education programs using reality-based, interactive educational techniques that are evidence-based and empower youth. Teen Outreach programs have reached over 18,000 students annually through in-school sexuality education in all 14 Washington County school districts. Since the Outreach began she and her team have taught over 231,000 young people in-school comprehensive sexuality education in four counties and 38 schools in Western PA. The Outreach has mentored over 7,000 young parents and trained over 10,000 peer educators. She directs a monthly Adolescent Advisory Board of 75 teens, maintains an active peer educator group (since 1995), and produces original teen educational dramas through the Real Talk Performers. The Outreach’s Ambassador for Respect Program was created in 2006 and models respect throughout the county; the 2013-2014 focus was Respect for Older Adults and the 2014-2015 theme is Smash the Stereotypes.

© Mary Jo Podgurksi

© Mary Jo Podgurksi

During 2010, Dr. Podgurski introduced her Real Talk for Real Teens™ trainings on sexuality education for school staff; these trainings provide activities, lesson plans, and PowerPoint presentations for 5th and 6th graders, middle school and secondary school students. Her educational/mentoring programs for pregnant and parenting teens (PPT) reach over 150 young parents annually in three counties. The PRIDE (Parenting Responsibly with Dignity and Empowerment) PPT Program and a program for expectant teen fathers entitled REAL Dads: Strong Fathers, Strong Families Program involve intensive, weekly mentoring contact with professional staff and young parents. The PPT Program averages an 85 – 94% high school graduation rate; over the last decade students in the program have experienced a 3% or less repeat pregnancy rate. The ECHO (Educate Children for Healthy Outcomes) early intervention program she created in 1999 provides intensive educational mentoring on a weekly basis for youth in grades 7 – 12. Founded on the evidenced-based antecedents for early childbearing (history of abuse, internal and external poverty, foster placement, and generational teen pregnancy) ECHO served 581 at-risk young women between 1999-2009. Only three of those young people experienced a pregnancy and all three were 17 or 18. ECHO clients are typically seen for 4 – 5 years. ECHO is currently being evaluated with help from Susan Philliber Associates.

I have had the privilege of meeting Mary Jo several times over the years at various childbirth functions and conferences.  The magic that this wonderful woman possesses is clear from the minute you meet her.  If you are lucky to spend some time with her, her, you cannot help but see her special powers!  When you talk to Mary Jo, she makes you feel like you are the most important person in the world.  You are heard, listened to and valued.

nonnie podgurskiMary Jo dreams big and makes things happen!  The depth and breadth of what she has accomplished is so expansive. In addition to her extensive program development history, she is an accomplished author, with works that include Inside Out: Your Body is Amazing Inside and Out and Belongs Only to You, a body-positive, child-centered, interactive, child abuse prevention program, is a result of her experience with survivors. Her publications include Games Educators Play One and Two, and What’s Up as YOU Grow Up?  In 2014 she authored a cutting edge children’s book on the challenging topic of gender/gender identity. Nonnie Talks about Gender is unique, interactive, and pertinent to today’s culture. Her latest books are Real Talk for Real Teen Parents: A Real Life Workbook for Young Parents, and Real Talk for Real Teens: #communicate, an interactive collection of scenarios to inspire adult/teen communication.  Mary Jo Podgurski is also a Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator and a Fellow in the Academy of Certified Childbirth Educators.

Mary Jo Podgurski, please accept my personal congratulations and those of the entire Lamaze International organization, as you accept the 2014 Carol Mendez Cassell Award for Excellence in Sexual Education.  We could not be more proud of you and we honor the work you are doing.  It is making a difference in the lives of many.  Thank you for all you do.

 

 

Awards, Childbirth Education, Uncategorized , , , ,

Q&A with Newly Elected Lamaze International President – Robin Elise Weiss

October 16th, 2014 by avatar

Lamaze International has a new board president and we would like to introduce you to Robin Elise Weiss. I am so delighted that Robin has assumed this role and I am confident that she accomplish great things during her term.

“Childbirth education is one of the most foundational elements of a safe and healthy birth.” – Robin Elise Weiss

© Robin Elise Weiss

© Robin Elise Weiss

Robin Elise Weiss has been elected President of Lamaze International, a nonprofit organization that promotes safe and healthy birth. Weiss is the mother of eight children and brings more than 25 years of expertise in maternal child health and building online communities to her role. She is a PhD candidate, author of more than ten books, and a leading online expert in pregnancy and childbirth. Robin will serve a one-year term beginning in the Fall of 2014.

“Childbirth education is one of the most foundational elements of a safe and healthy birth,” said Weiss. “As president, my goal is to build on the more than 50 years of incredible work and accomplishments of Lamaze by further expanding our capacity to meet parents where they – increasingly – can be found: online. I also want to ensure that Lamaze is addressing the needs of all families, by even further developing our educators both in numbers and diversity.”

In her role as president, Robin will oversee governance of Lamaze International, working with the board and committees to ensure that Lamaze programs and activities continue to fulfill the organization’s mission to advance safe and healthy pregnancy, birth and early parenting through evidence-based education and advocacy.  Robin will be also supporting the Lamaze vision of “knowledgeable parents making informed decisions.”

“Robin is a respected pregnancy and childbirth expert with years of experience as a Lamaze educator teaching both expecting parents and aspiring new educators. She brings natural leadership skills and social media expertise to her new role as Lamaze president,” said Linda Harmon, MPH, and Executive Director of Lamaze International.

Robin received her undergraduate degree in Reproductive Health, and Masters in Public Health from the University of Louisville. She is currently completing her Ph.D. in Public Health Management & Systems Science, also from the University of Louisville. Robin has been an innovator for the past 20 years on the Internet, consistently recognized for her significant role in providing unbiased childbirth education information online, including being the owner and creator of one of the first childbirth websites available.

Weiss is the author of more than ten books including: The Complete Illustrated Pregnancy Companion, The Better Way to Care for Your BabyThe Everything New Mother’s First Year, The Everything Pregnancy Fitness BookThe Better Way to Breastfeed, and The Everything Getting Pregnant Book. She is also the winner of Lamaze International’s prestigious Elisabeth Bing Award for outstanding contribution to childbirth on a national level and the Coalition for Improving Maternity Services (CIMS) Forum Award and the Lamaze International’s Presidents Award for her work with The Birth Survey. Robin lives in Louisville, Kentucky, with her husband and eight children.

I asked Robin a few questions about her thoughts on Lamaze International, her hopes and goals for the organization and some key messages for families and educators.  Join me in learning more about Robin she begins her term as Board President.

Sharon Muza: What are some of the opportunities and challenges that face our organization currently and what plan do you and the board have to meet these challenges?

Robin Elise Weiss: Last spring we had an amazing strategic planning session. I am so excited about all of the opportunities that lay ahead for us, and the fact that we all had similar mindsets about what the biggest challenges were, and a great variety of things to help us combat them. One of the things that we have a plan to address is to help increase the number of educators, in order to increase the number of women we reach with the Lamaze message. As a part of this plan, it’s important that we make that obtainable both as potential educators and as potential class attendants. This means thinking outside of the regular classroom and typical childbirth class attendee.

© Sharon Muza

© Sharon Muza

SM: When you think of the many recent accomplishments of Lamaze International, what are a few that you are most proud of? Why?

REW: One of the many things that Lamaze has worked really hard on is to build a great online presence. We all know what the data says about women’s online habits when it comes to parenting and health. Lamaze has built a great reputation with blogs like Giving Birth With Confidence for the consumer, Science & Sensibility for the educators and birth professional; as well as a variety of other means of simply being there, including Twitter accounts, Pinterest, Facebook, etc. Having ourselves out and about online gives women a chance to see that Lamaze International is an active and vital force, something that they want to have as a part of their birth, thus reaching out to their local Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator. Being online is something that is huge part of my life, and obviously, I’ve been talking to women in this space for over 20 years. Lamaze is a leader in this area.

I am also really excited about the Push for Your Baby Campaign. It launched last year with the video and has included a series of infographics. These are designed to be quick, evidence based ways for women and families to get information and to help build that faith in Lamaze.

 SM: Why is it more important than ever to pursue and maintain certification as a childbirth educator with Lamaze International?

REW: The push for evidence-based care is one that means that all levels of care, from education to execution of the medical side need to be in sync. As we often see with doctors and midwives, it can be really difficult to stay abreast of the vast amount of information that is published in this field on a daily basis. A certification with Lamaze is the bedrock of an education that is based on evidence, but also strives to continue to increase the knowledge levels and stay up-to-date with science and the changing landscape. Maintaining your Lamaze Certification means that you know that Lamaze is helping you filter out the noise and focus on great content that you need to know to be an amazing educator. We do that in a variety of ways, not the least of which is our Journal of Perinatal Education, Inside Childbirth newsletter, our blogs, and other social media platforms.

SM: What do you believe distinguishes Lamaze International from other childbirth education organizations? For educators? For families?

REW: Lamaze International has set a high bar for the childbirth educator. In 2015, Lamaze turns 55. The changes that have happened in birthing children in the last 55 years are astounding and I am not sure that anyone could have predicted where we would be today. That said, Lamaze has always maintained that a knowledgeable childbirth educator was the cornerstone of helping families prepare for their birth, which certainly hasn’t changed in the past 55 years. But something as basic having a loved one with you when you give birth is taken for granted, that wasn’t always so.

Lamaze International reaches families through the Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator. This is the gold standard by which all other programs are judged. We are a highly accredited certification and maintenance of that certification. You won’t find a once and done philosophy here. This keeps us on our proverbial toes.

SM: How important do you think it is for Lamaze to sit at the table with and be recognized as a serious player amongst maternal infant health organizations? Do you feel like we are there or do we have some growth in that area?

REW: The good news is that Lamaze does sit at that table and is taken seriously. Certainly there are some organizations that are more likely partners than others, but we are certainly reaching out. Just this past year, I’ve personally seen Lamaze interacting with organizations like DONA International, the American College of Nurse Midwives (ACNM), the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), and many others. There is always room for growth, and we will continue to reach out where it makes sense. (Don’t forget to mark your calendar for our joint conference in 2015 with the International Childbirth Education Association (ICEA)!)

There has been a large growth in the number of researchers and research that we take part in as an organization. This will continue to grow as we move forward.

SM: How can our members share with the public that this is not your mama’s Lamaze? That our organization and education offerings have moved beyond the stereotypical breathing exercises that seemed our trademark in decades past?

REW: This is one of those places that you need to simply be out there and be visible. Have your elevator speech, or speeches planned. You will get a good feel for what questions are pervasive in your community. You’ll get questions about the breathing. (I like to explain that as an LCCE, my job is to teach a variety of ways to deal with labor, not simply something like breathing, but also being active physically, and involved with your care.) You might get told that they don’t need a childbirth educator for whatever reason. (This is the perfect place to insert what makes you and your class unique! Hello – Talk up the Six Healthy Birth Practices.) Figure out what’s going on in your community and be ready.

You can also be proactive. Get out and talk about Lamaze International and what you are doing locally. Never hesitate to give a quick presentation someplace. (Yes, I’m known for traveling with a baby and pelvis for an impromptu class!) Offer to teach a quick 10 minute class on a topic at the local library (Give them a list of books to have available ahead of time!), or bookstore. Talk to others in your area and support one another, this is even better if you already have a birth network.

And social media and your online presence is also important. Share the links from our blogs and social media, particularly the infographics. These are great to put on your website, send in an email to a potential client, use as books marks, use the social media sharing buttons around the site. Share, share, share!

SM: Tell us something unusual about you that we might never know!

REW: Thanks to social media, I am not sure that I have anything unusual that’s not known. So let me tell you about something of which I am very proud – I was a Military Police Officer in the 101st Airborne Division. Being an MP has been a really unique facet of who I am as a professional and as a mother. I love to explain that I came to birth from a science perspective – the biology, chemistry, and physics – it just all works! What I didn’t understand was the touchy, feely stuff; that was difficult for me to learn. Now I feel like I have just the right amount of everything going for me – the science, the presence, and the sensitive side.

Please join me in congratulating Robin Elise Weiss on her election as board president and offer her good wishes as she begins her year of service in maintaining Lamaze International as the premier childbirth education organization.

 

 

 

Childbirth Education, Lamaze International, Push for Your Baby, Uncategorized , , , ,

World Breastfeeding Week 2014 – Breastfeeding: A Winning Goal for Life

August 5th, 2014 by avatar

wbw2014-logo3August 1-7, 2014 is World Breastfeeding Week and this year’s theme is Breastfeeding: A Winning Goal for Life.  This year’s theme builds upon the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) developed by the United Nations and global partners.  Breastfeeding plays a critical role in achieving all eight of the MDGs.  The World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action created a dynamic and clear graphic demonstrating how increasing global breastfeeding rates has the ability to impact every single one of the MDGs.

With this in mind, the World Breastfeeding Week theme, “Breastfeeding: A Winning Goal for Life” calls on celebrants to “Protect, Promote and Support Breastfeeding: It is a Vital Life-saving Goal.”  The theme recognizes the critical role that excellent support plays in achieving this goal and childbirth educators are right up there as one of the critical players, as childbirth educators are prepared and qualified to help new families learn about breastfeeding in their childbirth education classes.

Lamaze International supports getting breastfeeding off to a good start with the sixth Healthy Birth Practice: “Keep mother and baby together – It’s best for mother, baby and breastfeeding.”  Your role as a childbirth educator in normalizing breastfeeding, providing prenatal instruction on breastfeeding basics and sharing additional breastfeeding resources for families to utilize after their baby arrives contributes to the Millenium Development Goals with each and every family  you reach.

wbw2014-goals

Childbirth educators, along with doctors, midwives, labor & delivery nurses, lactation consultants, doulas, and others help support families in reaching their breastfeeding goals, and celebrate breastfeeding with every mother and new family they reach. Breastfeeding is a team effort and everyone plays a critical role.

Have you shared World Breastfeeding Week information with your families that are in your childbirth education classes?  Can you recall the times when a family followed up with you and thanked you for the evidence based information that you provided in their childbirth class, helping them to be prepared to breastfeed their baby after birth. What you do matters every day to mothers and babies and that includes the efforts to share accurate information about breastfeeding and breastfeeding resources with your students.  Thank you, childbirth educators, for making a difference. For more information about World Breastfeeding Week 2014, check out the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action website.

 

Babies, Breastfeeding, Childbirth Education, Healthy Birth Practices, Lamaze International, Newborns, Uncategorized , , , , ,

Lamaze International’s Parents Blog – Giving Birth with Confidence Seeks Your Expertise!

July 31st, 2014 by avatar

 My friend and colleague, Cara Terreri, is the Community Manager for the sister blog to Science & Sensibility, “Giving Birth with Confidence,” Lamaze International’s blog geared for expectant and new families.  Cara is looking for some guest writers, and that just might be you!  Read on to find out more.  - Sharon Muza, Community Manager, Science & Sensibility

Are you a maternal/child health professional with something to say or a passion to share? Giving Birth with Confidence, the Lamaze blog for parents, is seeking new voices to share relevant, up-to-date information with expectant parents everywhere. My name is Cara Terreri, and I manage and write for the Giving Birth with Confidence blog. I rely on my guest writers to share a range of topics and expertise with our readership. Guest posts on the blog can address a wide variety of topics pertinent to pre-conception, pregnancy, birth, postpartum, breastfeeding, and early parenting, and should be written in lay language, easily understood by the average person. Generally, articles are kept to a length of 1,000 words or less, but if the topic requires more, we can accommodate. Links, references and resources should be used where appropriate, and pictures (to which you own rights) are always appreciated! Below are a few topics on our current wish list, but please don’t hesitate to contact me with other ideas. 

  • growing research on the importance of colonizing baby’s gut after cesarean birth
  • options/choices if you experience a still birth
  • breastfeeding pain — difference between “normal” discomfort and pain, and what the pain could signal
  • resources for women on medicare and/or WIC during pregnancy/prenatal care
  • family centered cesarean
  • understanding fetal heart tones during labor (what are staff looking for with each 15 minute strip?)
  • rebozo 101 in labor
  • how to bond with your baby if you’ve been separated (NICU stay, etc)
  • relationship matters – during pregnancy, after birth
  • issues unique to single parents

We are also searching for our next Great Expectations blogger. If you or someone you know is in their first or early second trimester and would like to blog through their pregnancy experience (2 posts per month, through the first month postpartum), let us know!

Contact Cara Terreri to inquire about all guest writing opportunities.

Giving Birth with Confidence, Guest Posts, Uncategorized , ,

Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Risk Factor for Postpartum Depression – Part 1

June 3rd, 2014 by avatar

Childhood sexual abuse can play a key role as a risk factor for postpartum depression.  Kathy Morelli takes a look at the impact of this horrible childhood event on a woman during her childbearing year.  Today, in Part 1 – we learn how the brain actually undergoes changes as a result of the trauma experienced.  On Thursday, Kathy Morelli will discuss how the woman who has experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and what affect that has on her during the childbearing year,(pregnancy, birth and postpartum)  along with information and tips  for what childbirth educators can do.  Join us on Thursday for Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Risk Factor for Postpartum Depression – Part 2. – Sharon Muza, Community Manager, Science & Sensibility.

© CC Michelle Brea: http://flickr.com/photos/itsallaboutmich/451493421

© CC Michelle Brea: http://flickr.com/photos/itsallaboutmich/451493421

Woman to Woman Support

As I’ve said in my previous articles about Perinatal Mental Health, Lamaze childbirth professionals are very often the first point of contact for pregnant and new mothers. You’re an important resource in your community about pregnancy and childbirth, so becoming educated about the signs of perinatal mood/anxiety disorders and having an awareness about the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (12% -20% of women) is an important aspect of your knowledge base. This article is meant to:

  • Increase awareness about the emotional aspects of surviving childhood sexual abuse (CSA)
  • Present a broad overview about the research regarding CSA
  • Present how CSA impacts a woman holistically, over her lifespan
  • Present how CSA impacts a woman specifically during childbearing
  • Discuss the complex recovery process from CSA
  • Generate ideas about whom to add to your community resource and referral list
  • Encourage being effective and supportive while preserving your own personal, certification and/or licensure boundaries

Remember, you may be the first person with whom she feels safe enough to discuss her personal history, even before her healthcare provider and sometimes even before her family. You can help out by being positively aware, being appropriately supportive and providing a list of contacts in the community and online.

Holistic View of a Woman’s Emotional History

Whenever a woman comes into my office for help for feelings of emotional and somatic distress during her pregnancy, childbirth experience and postpartum, I look at her life holistically, across her lifespan. I don’t assume, but I wonder, if she might be in that estimated 12% – 20% of women who have been sexually abused in their lifetime.

Is there a likelihood that past abuse affects how a woman feels about herself during pregnancy and childbirth and can be an underlying causative factor for antenatal depression or anxiety?

The research literature about the link between a woman’s past childhood sexual abuse and distress during pregnancy is scarce, but emergent research does show a connection.

How does a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) intersect with postpartum depression? This is a complicated question, but I’ll try to list some influential factors.

The HPA Axis is Modified: Fear and panic of CSA alters internal stress response

In general, research shows us that people who suffered from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have a higher incidence of emotional, psychological and social distress, in addition to post-traumatic and physical, or somatic, symptoms. Specifically, research shows us that adult survivors of CSA suffer from higher rates of diabetes and cardiovascular symptoms (Plaza et al, 2010).

Women who have suffered past childhood sexual abuse suffer more unexplained gynecological symptoms, such as recurrent pelvic pain and more painful periods and sexual dysfunction than women who don’t have a traumatic sexual history (Lev-Weisel, Daphna- Tekoah, and Hallak, 2009). The stress and fear from childhood abuse manifests later on in adult life on all levels: body, mind and spirit.

What are some of the physical processes underlying this distress on the body and mind levels?

Researchers believe that long-term negative emotions, such as fear, panic and pain, cause an over-activation of the neural pathways in the brain associated with these strong emotions. The internal production of neurotransmitters, which affect mood, is affected. So chronic emotional stress impacts brain health.

The brain communicates with the pituitary and adrenal glands via the feedback loop called the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Cortex Axis (HPA Axis). The pituitary and adrenal glands are responsible for hormone production, which, in turn, affects the brain and our emotional state (Plaza et al, 2010).

During long-term childhood sexual abuse, the HPA Axis is continually activated and, with overactivation, the stress response becomes chronic, persisting throughout a lifetime. Thus, the chronic over-activation of the fear and pain response underlies anxiety disorders and chronic pain syndromes across the lifespan (Plaza et al, 2010).

During pregnancy and postpartum, hormonal changes are very dramatic, so there’s an additional adjustment for the mind and body to cope with. Thus, the hormonal changes during pregnancy also impact brain health via the pituitary and adrenal glands feedback loop.

Brain Development is Modified: Fear and panic of CSA can inhibit encoding of memories

Research shows that chronic fear and stress in childhood can actually inhibit the growth of some brain structures. In fact, some parts of the brain, such as the hippocampus, which is in charge of memory, are smaller in CSA survivors than people who were not abused in childhood. So, recollection of childhood memories is impaired.

In addition, brain imaging shows brain development is hindered in that there are less robust connections between the emotional part of the brain and the upper part of the brain (Plaza et al, 2010).

How do these underlying biological changes affect a person’s emotional health?

Survivors of childhood sexual abuse survivors are known to suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder, which has a constellation of symptoms on many levels: depression, anxiety, panic attacks, somatic pain, flashbacks and dissociative episodes.

Events that occured long ago in a woman’s life can still play a large role in her mental and physical health when she is pregnant, birthing and in the postpartum period. Join us on Thursday for Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Risk Factor for Postpartum Depression- Part 2: The Childbirth Educator’s Role.- SM

References

Beck, C. Driscoll, J., and S. Watson (2013). Traumatic childbirth. New York: Routledge Press.

Lev-Weisel, R., Daphna- Tekoah, S., Hallak, M. (2009). Childhood sexual abuse as a predictor of birth-related posttraumatic stress and postpartum posttraumatic stress. Child Abuse and Neglect, 33, 877-887.
Perez-Fuentes, G., Olfson, M., Villegas, L., Morcillo, C., Wang, S. & Blanco, C., (2013). Prevalence and correlates of child sexual abuse: a national study. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 5(1), 16-27. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22854279

Plaza, A., Garcia-Estave, L., Ascaso, C., Navarro, P, et al. (2010). Childhood sex-ual abuse and hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in postpartum major depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 122, 159-163.

Sichel, D. & Driscoll, J. (2000).Women’s Moods. New York: Harper Paperbacka.

Yampolsky, L., Lev-Wiesel, R., & Ben-Zion, I. Z. (2010). Child sexual abuse: is it a risk factor for pregnancy?. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(9), 2025-2037. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05387.x

Childbirth Education, Depression, Guest Posts, Maternal Mental Health, Perinatal Mood Disorders, Postpartum Depression, Uncategorized , , , , , , ,